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Steve Leonard, Ph.D.

   Dr. Leonard conducts research on occupational exposures and their effects on lungs as well as other biological systems. Investigating free radical potential and effects of particles.

The sphere of interest:

   The effects of inhaled occupational materials, including nano, on free radical generation and activation of ROS and downstream signaling.

Selected publications: (Selected from over 130 peer-reviewed publications)

- Leonard SS, Harris G, Shi X [2004]. Metal-induced toxicity, carcinogenesis, mechanisms and cellular responses. Free Radic Biol Med 37(12):1921-1942. 

- Leonard SS, Gannett PM, Rojanasakul Y , Schwegler-Berry DE, Castranova V , Vallyathan V, Shi X [1998]. Cobalt-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and its possible mechanism. J Inorg Biochem 70(3-4):239-244.

- Leonard SS, Wang S , Zang L , Castranova V , Vallyathan V, Shi X [2000]. Role of molecular oxygen in the generation of hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals during enzymatic Cr (IV) reduction and its implication to Cr (VI)-induced carcinogenesis. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 19(1-2):49-60.

- Leonard SS, Roberts JR, Antonini JM, Castranova V, Shi X [2004]. PbCrO4 mediates cellular responses via reactive oxygen species. Mol Cell 255(1&2):171-179.

- Leonard SS, Vallyathan V, Castranova V, Shi X [2002]. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the enzymatic reduction of PbCrO4 and related DNA damage. Mol Cell Biochem 234/235(1-2):309-315. 

- Badding MA, Stefaniak AB, Fix NR, Cummings KJ, Leonard SS [2014]. Cytotoxicity and characterization of particles collected from an indium-tin oxide production facility. J Toxicol Env Health A, 77(20):1193-1209.

- Dunnick KM, Badding MA, Schwegler-Berry D, Patete JM, Koenigsmann C, Wong SS, Leonard SS [2014]. The effects of tungstate nanoparticles on reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte macrophage cells. J Tox Environ Health Part A, 77(20):1251-1268.

- Leonard SS, Xia C , Jiang BH, Stinefelt B , Klandorf H , Harris G , Shi X [2003]. Resveratrol scavenges reactive oxygen species and effects radical-induced cellular responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 309:1017-1026.

- Leonard SS, Cutler DR, Ding M , Vallyathan V, Castranova V , Shi X [2002]. Antioxidant properties of fruit and vegetable juices: more to the story than ascorbic acid. Ann Clin Lab Sci 32(No. 2):193-200.

- Leonard SS, Wang S , Shi X , Jordan BY, Castranova V , Dubick MA [2000]. Wood smoke particles generate free radicals and cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, NFkB activation and TNF-alpha release in macrophages. Toxicology 150(1-3):147-157.

- Leonard SS, Castranova V, Chen BT, Schwegler-Berry DE, Hoover M, Piacitelli C, Gaughan D [2007]. Particle size dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke. Toxicology 236(1-2):103-113.

- Leonard SS, Chen TB, Stone S, Schwegler-Berry DE, Kenyon A, Frazer DG, Antonini JM [2010]. Comparison of stainless and mild steel welding fumes in generation of reactive oxygen species. Part Fibre Toxicol. 7:32.

- Pyrgiotakis G, McDevitt J, Bortini A, Molina R, Diaz E, Watson C, Mitsuyama Y, Leonard SS, Waldron NR, Brain J, Yamauchi T, Demokritou P [2014]. A chemical free, nanotechnology-based method for airborne bacterial inactivation using engineered water nanostructures. Environ. Sci. Nano, 1(1):15-26.